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•IMATE • HEALTH • LIK
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RALEIGH, N. C.
H. J. BROWN'
PS THK LARGEST, FINEST AND BEST SELECTED STOCK
Coffins and Caskets, in Cloth,
Wood and Metal; also Aluminum
Caskets, Burial Robes, Wrappers,
Slippers for Ladies, Gents and Child
Also Burglar-Proof Grayi ts.
J. W. BROWN,
Proprietor, Funeral Director and Emba
CHATFIELD & MESSER,
Agents at Southern Pines, N
B E HAVE four acres of land on which there are to be
erected sixteen Pavilions at a cost of $350 each, and
one Central or Administration Building at a cost of $20,000.
Four Pavilions are already pledged, two of which have been
completed and paid for and partly furnished. The institu-
tion is now open and we are receiving patients.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
(Efye * Southern * Sanitarium
Devoted to the Cause of Afflicted Humanity.
Vol. I. Raleigh, N. C, January i, 1897. No. 4.
IS CONSUMPTION CONTAGIOUS OR CATCHING?
This is the question so often asked us. We answer that
the great majority of medical authorities on both sides of
the Atlantic seem to be very well agreed that consumption
is contagious or catching.
A firm belief in the contagiousness of this dreaded di-
sease has been the cause of our humble efforts in favor of
a special Sanitarium for consumptive Negroes, that those
affected might be isolated from those who are not affected
by this disease.
What can we hope for but a rapid increase of consump-
tion, when in many cases a whole family of as many as
six, eight or ten persons live, cook, eat, wash and SLEEP in
one room that has scarcely capacity for two or three at
most, and even then quite often one of this large number
is sick of consumption in this same room. Do you wonder
that the disease spreads rapidly? What is the remedy?
Isolation, isolation, with all kindness and sympathy, but
isolation where they will have good care, comforts, and a
plenty of fresh air, with regulation of habits and conditions.
By this means the diseased ones will live longer and
under more comfortable and cheering circumstances, while
a much less number will contract the disease than would
otherwise have it, had the sick been left in a dull, crowded,
gloomy home, with unsanitary surroundings.
The following clipping is so much to the point, and so
prophetic, that we give it our hearty endorsement by com-
mending it to our readers :
2. THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
" Should those who are diseased marry ? " is a question often asked and
discussed. It is impossible to treat the human race as we do our beasts ;
we will kill diseased cattle ; entire herds of valuable Jerseys have been
destroyed because they were found to be tuberculous.
It would be equivalent to w T ar if such method were adopted in an at-
tempt to stamp out tuberculosis in the human race. Yet we must realize
that efforts stronger and more logical than have been and are now being
used must eventually be employed for this purpose. Either laws must
be passed prohibiting intermarriage between health}- and diseased per-
sons, or compelling the isolation of all who are diseased, irrespective of
class, condition, and sex.
This editorial was not written to discuss the best methods of obliterat-
ing tuberculosis, but to impress upon the profession the necessity of
pointing out dangers which their patients cannot discover. Those who
inherit tubercular tendencies should be carefully schooled in habits which '
will best enable them to guard against the disease ; many who are to-day
beyond the hope of recovery would still be on the safer side had they
been warned in time. Change of climate, quitting the more dangerous
regions for localities more favorable to their condition, has by itself saved
many who, had they remained in their former environments, w r ould have
Intermarriage between healty and tubercular persons should never be
sanctioned. The family physician can warn parents of the dangers of
such unions without offending or appearing officious. — Louisville Medi-
THE EFFECTS OF EHANCIPATION UPON THE MENTAL
AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF THE NEGRO OF
By Dr. J. F. Miller.
We have given above the subject upon which Dr. J. F.
Miller, Superintendent of the Eastern Hospital at Golds-
boro, N. C, for insane Negroes, read a paper some time ago
before the Southern Medico-Psychological Association, and
which has since been printed in pamphlet form and circu-
The paper is a very interesting one from several stand-
points, and, indeed, so much so that we cannot pass it by
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 3
It is interesting because of Dr. Miller's experience and
his present official relation to the Negro.
It is also of interest because of the practical truth ex-
pressed in some parts of it.
But it becomes the more interesting as we note and re-
flect upon the very illogical and unfounded conclusions the
writer claims to have reached.
Such conclusions, if believed, are likely to do the Negro
serious damage in the presence of those who do not stop to
question the truthfulness of such statements as the
While we are aware of the fact that we belong to a de-
pendent race of people, about whom, when taken as a whole,
critics may find room to say many hard and discouraging
things, yet it is to be remembered that a part of the race
are looking upward, and are seeking as best they can to
inarch onward, and therefore should receive encouragement
and help from those ahead of them, instead of one in high
position seeking, not only to discourage them, but to dis-
courage those who are trying to help them. We do not
intend to attempt to deny a single truth the doctor expresses ;
in fact we agree with him in the seeming increased coinci-
dence of insanity and tuberculosis among the Negroes.
But how, in the name of common reason a man, who
claims to be learned in the science of medicine and reading
daily, as we suppose, the current literature of the profes-
sion, can jump to such conclusions as the following, in the
face of all the facts to the contrary, we cannot even sur-
NOW HEAR HIM.
Dr. J. F. Miller says: "I am fully aware that among the
Afro-Americans of the South ma}- be found some orators
eloquent in speech; some who have attained to ripe schol-
arship, and many others who have demonstrated considera-
4 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
ble capacity in the learned professions and in business cir-
cles; but as a rule snch are of mixed blood."
The last clause of the doctor's statement, which attri-
butes all the worth of the race to the mixed blooded ones,
making the worth of the real Negro the exception, simply
demonstrates the fact that the doctor is grossly ignorant of
the details of the Negroes' intellectual development, and
simply writes from sentiment without regard to the facts
in the case.
Now let us see what the facts are : Dr. Blyden, the
President of Liberia College in Africa, is acknowledged
by American and European scholars to be the most learned
Negro known to the educated world. He speaks fluently
seven different and distinct languages with as much ease
as we do the English language, yet he is as black as a
black silk hat.
We would that Dr. Miller could look into his face and
have some experience with that bright intellect under that
The most brilliant legal Negro representation at the
American bar is a black man reared (I think) in South
Many of the most brilliant and successful Negro medi-
cal practitioners in America, Liberia and the West Indies
are black Negroes. The silver-tongued orator (who now
sleeps the long sleep), 'Dr. J. C. Price, was a black man of
a beautiful hue.
The late Rev. W. W. Brown was possibly, all things
considered, America's greatest financier, was born a slave,
and never had any special training, yet from almost noth-
ing he accumulated a young fortune and became president
of a bank in about ten years. He was truly a black man.
Black Patti, who has been honored before many of the
crowned heads of the civilized world, is undoubtedly a
gifted singer. She, too, is a black woman.
Blind Tom, the wonder of the world, was a black man.
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 5
The Negro pulpit is occupied all over this country with
black men, eminent and devout in their calling.
And so we could name them up into the thousands and
then not name them all who, though black, are yet emi-
nent. Does this look like what Dr. Miller says? "as a
rule, such are of mixed blood."
Dr. Miller also says of the Negro : " But as a class, their
mental calibre is small ; the convolutions of their brain
are few and superficial ; their cranial measurement small,
and other anitomical facts demonstrate his inferiority."
Now let us, see what are the facts in this case :
Dr. Austin Flint in his work on Human Physiology
gives an ethnological table derived from 405 autopsies of
white and Negro brains, in which the average weight of
the brains of 24 whites was 52.06 oz., while the average
weight of 141 Negro brains was 46.96 oz.
In another table 278 autopsies upon the brains of white
subjects he gave an average of 49^ oz.
Here is a difference in weight that might be taken as
conclusive, but the same authority gives another table in
which he shows that a congenital imbecile who died in the
West Riding Lunatic Asylum in 1876, at the age of 30
years, and whose brain weighed 70.50 oz. A brick-layer
also who could not read nor write, but was of fair intelli-
gence, was reported by Dr. James Morris to have a brain
weighing 67.00 oz. There was alstf reported by Dr. Tuke
a congenital epileptic idiot, whose brain weighed 60 oz.
Yet a celebrated mineralogist's brain weighed only
43.24. Here was a strong active mind in a small brain,
and possibly few convolutions.
A boy also, age 13 years, healthy and intelligent, died
from injuries caused by a fall, was reported in the British
Medical Journal October 19, 1872, whose brain- weighed
We can readily see now that neither the size nor the
weight of an individual brain can be taken as an absolute
6 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
measurement of the intellectual capacity of that individ-
ual. For above quotations show that persons who were
born idiots, and whose mental calibre was well known, had
brains much more weighty than the great Daniel Webster,
whose brain weighed 53.50 oz., or Cuvier, whose brain
weighed 64.33 oz., or Abercrombie, whose brain weighed
63 oz. The last three named were great men possessing
Dr. Flint also says upon this same subject : " If w r e ac-
cept the view, which is in every way reasonable, that the
gray substance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator
of the mind, it would be necessary in comparing different
individuals, with the view of establishing a definite rela-
tion between brain, substance and intelligence, to estimate
the amount of gray matter; but it is not easy to see how
this can be done with any degree of accuracy."
Now, then, in the face of these facts, coming from such
eminent authority of international reputation, we put the
question : " How, in the name of truth and justice, can Dr.
J. F. Miller jump to the very positive conclusion that the
convolutions of the negro's brain are few and superficial,
and his cranial measurement small, etc., and that m conse-
quence of which their mental calibre is small.'''' This is
what he positively asserts.
We have shown beyond all reasonable doubt that many
very small brains have done much greater and better work
than other much larg-er brains with larger cranial measure-
W T e have proven that persons possessing the largest brains,
with two doubtful exceptions, of which we have any record,
were in their mentality exceedingly low, indeed, with
scarcely no mental force at all. These persons, of course,
had larger cranial measurements.
We have proven by eminent authority that the gray sub-
stance of the cerebral hemispheres is the generator of the
mind, and that we cannot establish a definite relation be-
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 7
tween brain substance and intelligence until we can esti-
mate the amount of gray matter in the brain.
Dr. Flint and others say : u It is not easy to see how this
can be done with any degree of accuracy."
If we grant Dr. Miller that the convolutions are superficial'
and few, what does he gain? He certainly cannot know
the amount of gray matter, and therefore cannot know defi-
nitely the forces of that certain intellect.
We give one more quotation from a reliable authority in
reference to the amount of brain substance, who says:
"A careful study of the weights given in the table
shows the impossibility of applying to individuals an ab-
solute rule that the greatest brain-power is connected with
the greatest amount of brain substance."
What now becomes of Dr. Miller's so-called scanty and
superficial convolutions with small cranial measurements?
Let him find them.
Dr. Miller also asserts concerning the Negro, that " The
color of his skin is a mark of inferiority, and not the re-
sult of climatic influences, as has been declared by some."
Here the Doctor is absolutely certain and positive as he
is in Mrery case. Certainly if he has been reading the
recent works on physiology that have been written since
the days when he used to study the science, he would
never make such an incautious and unscientific statement.
If he will revert to the subject of the physiological an-
atomy of the skin he will find, to his possible surprise,
that the best authorities are agreed that the color of the
skin is dependant upon the coloring matter or pigment in
the pigmentary cells of the malpighian layer of the skin ;
hence the various colors in the Negro — the color of the
Chinaman, the Indian and the Caucasian. It is a well
established fact that the skin does change its color (or
rather the pigment) under certain conditions of climate,
age, season, health, etc. These changes, whether perma-
nent or temporary, of themselves, can have nothing to do
with the inherent mental capacity of the 1 individual.
8 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
Now, then, we once more ask, will Dr. J. F. Miller, in
the face of such authorities as Drs. Flint, Baker, Harris,
Elliot and others already named, still contend with his
absolute certainty, that all he has said, as quoted by us, is
correct, and therefore eminent authorities are mistaken?
It is to be remembered that Dr. Miller has spoken with
positive certainty in all he says against the ability of the
Negro, expressing no doubt, and therefore seems to defy the
best authority and set himself up as the criterion upon this
subject. Dr. Miller must admit, however, upon reflection,
that there have been many, many more Negroes than he
gives credit for, whose African blood could not be doubted
and whose skin was certainly black. who ; under the cir-
cumstances, have been a reasonably gratifying success in
every avenue in which they have been permitted to operate
in this country, and that whether their " cerebral convolu-
tions" were "scanty" and "superficial" and their "cra-
nial measurements small" and their skin black or not, yet
whatever the Negro has accomplished of good has been
done in consequence of inherant mental powers that were
handed down to him from the great mind of God, as a sa-
cred trust, and therefore unwarranted criticisms of their
mental and physical construction cannot change inherent
SOME PROBABLE CAUSES OF THE RAPID SPREAD OF
CONSUHPTION AMONG THE NEGROES.
Some of the probable causes for the very rapid spread of
consumption among the Negroes in the South may be sug-
gested as follows:
i. Sudden changes in their habits, environments and
2. Inability to provide many of the necessary comforts
3. The assumption of great responsibilities.
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 9
4. Living in crowded and unsanitary tenement houses.
5. Failure to place sufficient safeguards around the health
of mothers, during the period of gestation, and a want of
sufficient care for both the mother and child during the
period of lactation.
6. Ignorance of and disregard for the laws of hygiene.
7. Marrying without due regard for the family history
on either side, or the present health of either of the two
8. A want of sufficient familiarity with the early history
and symptoms of the disease, so as to be able to make an
9. Mixing or crossing of the races.
10. Over crowded and badly ventilated churches and
11. Faulty heating and boarding departments of many
of our higrh schools and colleges.
WILL YOU BELIEVE IT?
If the Negro had money sufficient with which to change
climate and residence, under medical advice, for the pro-
tection of his health and life from the ravages of Con-
sumption, as do his more favored white friends, I beg to
ask, is there a single sanitary shelter at any health resort
here in the South under which he could put his head ? It
is a well-know^i fact that all of the hotels (many of which
are but sanitary institutions) here in the South, as well as
the special sanitary institutions for consumptives, are, by
long-standing customs and laws, closed against the Negro.
He simply cannot be admitted, whatever may be his cir-
cumstances. He neither owns nor controls a single sani-
tary hotel or institution at any of these places of resort in
IO THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
Whatever may be his chances to save or protect his life
and health from this dreaded disease, the facts remain the
same? He is, therefore, doomed to an early death in almost
every case as the only relief from the pangs of deprivation
and want, to say nothing about the sufferings incident to
the disease. He must remain at home and be deprived of
any of the benefits that might be gained by a change of
residence. And what is this home? It is, in the great
majority of cases, only a crowded, unclean, tenement
house, too often unfit for the indwelling of so many cattle.
ON THE OTHER HAND
If there were such institutions or hotels open to him, as
a part of the general public, there would even then be but
a limited number who could command the means with
which to pay necessaay expenses. So that, even then, the
great majority of Negro sufferers from this disease would
still be helpless and almost friendless.
Again, those institutions in the North into which these
sufferers might gain admission, are in a climate entirely
unsuited to their already diseased lungs.
Now, then, here is the condition of most Negro con-
sumptives : In crowded, unclean and uncomfortable tene-
ment houses, without sufficient and proper food or nurs-
ing, often weeks, and even months, go by without any
change of night-clothing or bedding ; no kind hand to give
even what food some neighbor has sent; no money or
friend to have the prescription filled that some physician
has kindly but hopelessly left; no fuel for fire, no oil for
lamp — and when there is a lamp, it often has no globe or
chimney, hence the room at night is filled with smoke.
The dear old mother, the kind father, or husband, or wife,
upon whom the sick is dependent, has to leave at early
morning to return late at night in order to provide even
these rude excuses for comfort. The poor consumptive
• THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. II
remains thus alone from morning till night, day after day,
forsaken by friends, many of whom would at least visit
and administer to him some comforts but for the loathsome-
ness of himself and his surroundings.
I will give only two out of many cases coming under
my own observation :
I visited a girl eighteen years of age just before she
died. She had been sick for ten months, and for eight
months had been confined to her bed. Her bed had, at
some time, been filled with straw that had, from long use,
become finely powdered and bagged down between the bed-
slats, leaving only the cloth of the ticking between the
body of the patient and the slats, which had cut and lacer-
ated the skin and the soft tisssues beneath it, exposing
bleeding surfaces of the bones, all of which presented a
bloody mass of the lacerated tissues of the back of this
miserable sufferer. It was only a few days, however, after
I saw her before death came as the only relief.
Another girl whom I saw some time ago was in a
crowded, unclean room, on an unclean bed, and dressed in
unclean night clothing. The sputa from gangrenous lungs
had, for several weeks, been deposited on a bank of sand
placed by the bed for that purpose. The odor in the room
was simply awful, and the flies swarmed around this sur-
ferer as disturbed bees do around their hive. Here she lay
for months, day after day, apparently friendless, and cer-
tainly helpless, without the friendly hand of a nurse, or
even the comforting words of many of her former friends,
who did what they could for a while, but soon gave up in
• despair, and rather than be annoyed by her loathsome sur-
roundings they had left her to do the best she could.
The history of these two cases is the history of many
more. Indeed, unless consumptives are kept clean, and
have clean surroundings they are, of all patients, the most
unpleasant spectacles to the ordinary visitor. These pa-
tients must have proper care and treatment.
If THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
It is, therefore, to this end that the Pickford Sanitarium
has been established. If we could not cure them we might
give them comfortable quarters in which to die, at least.
SOriE FACTS ABOUT OUR TRUSTEES.
Dr. Richard H. Lewis is the Secretary of the North Caro-
lina Board of Health, also Consulting Surgeon to the Eye
Departments of Rex Hospital, Leonard. Medical Hospital,
St. Agnes Hospital and Professor of Diseases of the Eye in
Leonard Medical College, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. A. W. Shaffer is ex-Postmaster, Raleigh, N. C.
Col. Julian S. Carr is the President of the Blackwell
Durham Tobacco Company, a philanthropist, one of North
Carolina's most widely known and influential citizens, Dur-
ham, N. C.
Mr. C. F. Meserve is President of Shaw University, Ral-
eigh, N. C.
Mr. Berry O'Kelly, Merchant, Method, N. C.
Mr. E. A. Johnson, Professor of Law at Shaw University.
Mr. Joseph G. Brown, our treasurer, is President of the
Citizens National Bank, of Raleigh, N. C.
Bishop Joseph B. Cheshire, is Bishop of the Diocese of
Mrs. C. J. Pickford, philanthropist, Lynn, Mass.
Dr. James McKee, Superintendent of Health and Presi-
dent of the Board of Health, Raleigh, N. C; Professor
Obstetrics in Leonard Medical College, and Visiting and
Consulting Physician to St. Agnes, Rex and Leonard Hos- «
pitals, Raleigh, N. C.
Prof. A. W. Pegues, Professor of Theology, Shaw Univer-
sity, Raleigh, N. C.
Mr. John T. Patrick, Secretary Of the Southern Inter-
State Immigration and Industrial Association, also Chief
of Industrial Department S. A. L., Southern Pines, N. C.
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 3
Rev. R. H. W. Leak, pastor of the St. Paul A. M. E.
Church, and editor National Outlook, Raleigh, N. C.
Dr. Edward 0. Otis, prominent physician, Boston, Mass.
Dr. H. C. Fulkner, well-known physician, Boston, Mass.
Bishop A. J. Gaines, Bishop of A. M. E. Church, At-
No unnecessary idleness will be encouraged at this insti-
tution. Sufficient garden land will be provided, so that
patients may take Very moderate out-door exercise, and in
this way, zvhen able so to do, the patient will not only help
to feed himself, but will take, under healthy rules, such
physical exercise in the open air as will prove to be a great
help in expanding the lung cells to a moderate degree, and
in securing for him certain necessary muscular develop-
We propose to have a well-aired, suitable building, in
which carpenters, shoemakers, blacksmiths, tin-workers,
carving and scroll cutters, printers and others of the indus-
trial arts, may find welcome homelike employment. In this
way, with the garden, or little farm and shop work, our
institution will take such a stand as to commend itself both
to the sufferer and the public in general. This light labor
will prove to this class of patients not only a pleasant duty
in warm days in winter, but a desirable, as well as an ac-
ceptable method of exercise as a part of the treatment which
My friend, will you help us, and thereby have a hand in
this work for the most wretchedly diseased of your fellow-
beings? Will you, on this day of good health, and in the
midst of a prosperous life, turn a deaf ear to the husky,
feeb.le call of the suffering and dying, or will you help to
make comfort for the comfortless? Remember, that you
and all you have belong to the Lord, therefore don't with-
hold from His suffering- creatures that which He would
H THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
have you give them. As you give to help others who are
actually in great need, so will He give more abundantly to
Please read Matt. 25: 40-45 inclusive.
NOTES AND CLIPPINGS.
Our friends who so kindly send us barrels and packages
will please prepay freight or express on the same, as we
have no funds that we can use for such purposes, and in
this way greatly help and oblige the General Manager.
Notwithstanding the hard times and the opposition
we have had to meet, we thank the Lord that two build-
ings are up and paid for, grounds and all. The institution
is now open and receiving patients at twelve dollars per
In each copy of this Journal will be found a pledge
card, which we urge the friends of our cause to fill out and
return to us. You can help us ! You must help us ! Our
needs are many. Anything in the line of food and cloth-
ing, bedding, etc., will be gratefully received.
We will place the name of any one on a marble slab,
and place the same in the wall of any one of the seventeen
buildings he may choose to erect, or furnish us with the
means with which to erect, and name the building after
the donor. Three hundred and fifty dollars will erect any
one of the sixteen cottages. Twenty thousand dollars will
erect the Central or Administration Building.
Just think ! In one city here in the South, the number
of deaths from consumption in ten years was 3,119, of
which 611 were white people and 2,508 were colored peo-
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 5
pie, showing a death rate of about one of the former to
three of the latter, by population. The negroes in this
country constitute less than (1-10) one tenth of the popu-
lation, and at the same time nearly 40 per cent, of the
mortality from consumption' alone. Is this not cause for
alarm ? The facts answer.
Owing to the long and severe illness of the Secretary and
General Manager, we could not have our public exercises
at the opening of our Institution, so we opened in a quiet
way, but under most encouraging circumstances. After
all, we close the year with our two buildings completed and
very nearly furnisned, with a debt of about $50.00 only.
So you see we have the Kind Providence on our side.
We should not owe one dime on our permanent improve-
ments but for our physical inability right at the close of
Who will help us pay this at once? Answer.
Dr. Biggs, of the Board of Health, made some startling
statements before the Board of estimates while that body
was to-day considering the city budget for 1898. The
Board of estimates was asked to approve a grant of $60,000
for the care of tuberculosis in a special hospital. Dr. Biggs,
speaking for the Board of Health, in support of the appro-
priation, declared that one out of every seven persons who
die in his city are victims of tubercular consumption. Dr.
Biggs further stated that among the working classes the
per centage of deaths due to this disease was one quarter.
The Board of Health approved the $60,000 asked for.
Thank the Lord ! New York City has come in line with
Massachusetts. Other cities and States must follow. Iso-
lation of the tuberculous subject will prove to be the only
salvation for the non-tuberculous.
1 6 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
It is therefore proposed, "God being willing," in His
great name, to build a sanitarium and dedicate it to the
cause of human suffering so that when many, if not all of
us, are sleeping that long and, I trust, peaceful sleep, there
may, even then, be some spot on .this Southern soil, to
which the ghastly consumptive Negro may look, if not for
a cure, at least for a mitigation of his suffering, that when
dying he or she may have some sunray of comforting light
to shine upon that wasting form.
Furniture and ware for dining-room.
Furniture, etc., for Matron's room and office.
Bed clothing of all kinds, new or second-handed — only
Buckets, cuspidores, towels, napkins, soaps, night cloth-
ing, disinfectants, drugs, medicines, cotton cloth, etc.
Twenty-five dollars with which to dig a well that we
may have fresh water. Who will help us to this extent?
Food, such as tea, coffee, corn meal, flour sugar, fat
meat, crackers, oat meal, rice, syrup, salt fish; $25,000 to
complete our other fiften buildings out of the seventeen
(17) proposed. When this is done we shall have capacity
for two hundred and fifty (250) patients. Now, then, my
friend, is there not something in this list of Immediate
Needs you can give us? Read the list again, and think of
these poor, helpless sick people upon us to be cared for.
You can help ! Will you do so?
"If you cannot give your thousands
You can give the widow's mite,
And the least you do for Juesus
Will be precious in His sight."
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
A NATIONAL INSTITUTION.
It is to be remembered that the Pickford Sanitarium is
a National Institution open to all parts of this great
country for the Negro. There are to be 36 trustees, who
shall represent all parts of our interests.
No politics shall be introduced with its afiairs.
No special denomination or religious belief shall dominate
It is a Christian institution in the broadest and most
liberal sense, founded upon the fatherhood of God and the
brotherhood of man.
We beg to tender our sincere thanks to the following
named persons for aid received for the Pickford Sanitarium
since our last issue :
Rev. and Mrs. A. B. Hunter, Raleigh, N. C, $50.
Rev. John T. Pullen, Raleigh, N. C, $5.
Messrs Park, Davis & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of medi-
Messrs Fredrick Stearns & Co., Detroit Mich., one lot of
Messrs Henry K. Wampole & Co., Philadelphia, Pa., one
lot of medicines.
Messrs Schering & Glatz, New York, one lot of medicines.
The G. F. Harvey Company, Saratoga Springs, N. Y.,
one lot of medicines.
These are very valuable gifts and certainly are highly ap-
We have also assurances from Messrs Robinson, Pettet
& Co., of Louisville, Ky.
The Purdue Fredrick Company, of New York, and the
Paul Paquin Laboratories of St. Louis, that their contribu-
tions will be forthcoming. Thanks, gentlemen.
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
by dr. r. h. lewis. Secretary of the N. C. Board of Health,
The geographical location and the geological formation
of the State are peculiarly adapted to the production of those
conditions which make for health in general. As to cli-
mate, we occupy the vantage-ground of the golden mean,
inclining somewhat to the warmer side. It is neither too
hot nor too cold. While we have a generous summer, long
enough to mature two crops of many kinds, the thermometer
does not rise as high as it often does far to the northward
of us, and the summer temperature is not usually oppres-
sive. We also have a sufficiency of winter, with occasional
light snows, and once in every few years, ice thick enough
to skate on in safety, and with rain and dark days, but on
the whole it is bright and sunshiny. The late Bishop Ly-
man, who lived many years in Italy, said that the climate
of Raleigh was superior to that of Florence — more sunshine
in it. Our winters are just long enough and severe enough
to restore the snap and vigor and elasticity that may have
been weakened by the summer — we are enabled to fully re-
coup any physical wastes attributable to long continued
heat. The conditions, so far as they relate to the propor-
tion of heat and cold, are just those which, while permit-
ting easy and comfortable living from the opportunities
afforded for work throughout the entire year — the special
advantage of the South — do not enervate and weaken the
desire and power of work. In a word, the conditions are 4
exactly suited to the healthful and pleasant existence of the
Although it is not as dry as it is in some sections of our
country, still in our long leaf-pine, sand-hill region, where
the porous soil takes up the water so rapidly that one can
walk dry-shod in a half-hour after the heaviest rain, it is dry
enough for the consumptive, and yet he can enjoy the sight
and smell of the "blessed rain from heaven," and be lulled
THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM. 1 9
to sleep by its patter on the roof. Neither can we boast so
great elevation as some other localities, but in the matter
of altitude we have sufficient variety, from the sea-level to
Mitchell's Peak of nearly 7,000 feet, to suit any constitu-
tion. Roan Mountain, which it is interesting to know has
a greater variety of flora between its summit and half-way
to its base than the whole continent of Europe, is noted for
the relief its rare pure air affords to the sufferer from hay-
fever. For consumptive, the high mountain plateau of
Asheville and vicinity, including particularly, the country
about Highlands and Blowing Rock, affords very favorable
conditions. To those of this class who do not bear high
altitudes well, the pure dry air of the pine-clad sand-hills,
of Moore and adjoining counties, of which Southern Pines
is the centre, often proves a healing balm. It is said by
many who have tried the pine-country further south and
that of our State, both, that they prefer the latter because
the climate is not so enervating.
Although it must, in candor, be said that malarial diseases
occur in certain sections of the State — as they do in many
favored sections of higher latitude — they are of a milder
type, less malignant than in warmer regions. This class of
diseases has, however, been robbed of its terrors since the
recent demonstration of the fact that they are chiefly, if not
entirely, attributable to the drinking of the surface water
and not to bad air. (For evidence on this point apply to
the Secretary of the State Board of Health, at Raleigh, for
•a copy of the health pamphlet on "Drinking Water in its
Relation to Malarial diseases.") It is practically in the
power of every person to protect himself from malaria, if
he desires to do so by confining himself to the water of cis-
terns and deep bored wells. And it is to be noted as an in-
teresting fact that some of the more serious and fatal disease
common to every section of the globe, as typhoid fever, for
example, are of a milder type and less deadly than in other
localities not frequented by the Plasmodium malariae.
20 THE SOUTHERN SANITARIUM.
In this day of scientific accuracy, an appeal to carefully
collated facts is desirable. Upon turning to the mortuary
tables of the Fifth Biennial Report of the State Board of
Health, we find that the average total death-rate in the
larger cities and towns where the records are carefully kept
is 15.5 per thousand — for the whites 12.5, and for so-called
malarious section the death-rate is actually less than the
average for the whole number.
The machinery provided by the State for protecting the
health of its citizens, consists of a State Board and of County
Superintendents of Health — to say nothing of municipal
organizations for that purpose. The former has general
supervision of the sanitary interests of the people, and the
latter are charged with the particular care of those in their
respective counties. Any special information that may be
desired can be obtained by addressing the Secretary of the
State Board at Raleigh.
In Effect June 14, 1896.
TRAINS LEAVE RALEIGH :
NORFOLK AND CHATTANOOGA LIMITED.
3:40 p. M., DAILY. — Solid vescibuled train, with sleeper from Raleigh to
Chattanooga, via Salisbury, Morganton, Asheville, Hot Springs and
Knoxville. Connects at Durham for Oxford, Clarksville and Keysville,
except Sunday; at Greensboro with Washington and Southwestern Ves-
tibuled (limited) train for all points North, and with main-line train No.
12 for Danville, Richmond and intermediate stations; also has connection
for Winston-Salem, and with main-line train No. 35, " United States Fast
Mail, " for Charlotte, Sparatanburg, Greenville, Atlanta and all points
South; also Columbia, Augusta, Charleston, Savannah, Jacksonville, and
all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at
all points in Flordia. Sleeping-car for Atlanta, Jacksonville, and at
Charlotte with sleeping-car for Augusta.
CHT TANOOGA AND NORFOLK LIMITED.
11:45 A - M -> DAILY. — Solid train, consisting of Pullman sleeping-cars
and coaches, from Chattanooga to Raleigh, arriving at Norfolk at 5:20 p.
M„ in time to connect with the Old Dominion, Merchants & Miners, Nor-
folk & and Washington, and Baltimore, Chesapeake & Ricemond Steam-
ship Companies for all points North and East. Connects at Selma for
Fayetteville and intermediate stations on the Wilson and Fayetteville
Short-Cut, daily; daily except Sunday for Newbern and Morehead City;
daily for Goldsboro and Wilmington an 1 intermediate stations on the
Wilmington & W T eldon Railroad.
8:53 A. M., DAILY. — Connects at Durham, for Oxford, Keysville, Rich-
mond; at Greensboro for Washington and all points North.
3:40 p. m. , DAILY. — For Goldsboro and intermediate stations.
2:00 A. M., DAILY. — Connects at Greensboro for all points North and
South, and Winston-Salem and points on the Northwestern North Caro-
lina Railroad; at Salisbury for all points in Western North Carolina,
Knoxville, Tenn., Cincinnati and Western Points; at Charlotte for Spar-
tanburg, Greenville, Athens, Atlanta and all points South.
TRAINS ARRIVE AT RALEIGH :
3:40 p. m., DAILY. — From Atlanta, Charlotte, Greensboro and all points
7:10 A. M., DAILY. — From Greensboro and all points North and South.
Sleeping-car from Greensboro to Raleigh.
"NORFOLK AND CHATTANOOGA LIMITED."
3:40 P. M., DAILY. — From all points East, Norfolk, Tarboro, Wilson
and water lines. From Goldsboro, Wilmington, Fayetteville and all
points in Eastern Carolina.
"CHATTANOOGA AND NORFOLK LIMITED."
11:45 A - M -i DAILY. — From New York, Washington, Lynchburg, Dan-
ville and Greensboro, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Hot Springs and Asheville.
9:00 p. m., Daily Except Sunday. — From Goldsboro and all points
8:53 A - M ,-> DAILY. — From Goldsboro.
FOR TICKETS, routes and rates, or other information, call on or write to 'f had. C.
Sturgis, Ticket Agent, Raleigh, N. C.
J. M. CULP, Traffic Manager. W. H. GREEN, Gen. Supt. W. A. TURK, G. P. A.
^9 l\m !—*•
VESTIBULED LIMITED TRAINS. Double
Daily service. Shortest and Quickest Route
to Atlanta, New Orleans, Norfolk, Richmond,
Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Boston,
New York. Schedule in effect November, i,
v — 1896.
TRAINS LEAVE RALEIGH :
"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule for Hender-
2.16 a. m. Daily. son, Weldon, Petersburg, Richmond, Washington,
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and all points
North. Buffet drawing-rooms sleepers and Pullman 'coaches At-
lanta to Washington, parlor cars Washington to New York; Pull-
man sleeping-car Monroe to Portsmouth. Arrives at Washington
11:43 a. m., Baltimore 12:45 noon, Philadelphia 3:50 p. m., New
York 6:23 p. m. Also for Ports.nouth, Norfolk, Old Point, and
local stations Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad.
For Henderson, Weldon, Suffolk, Portsmouth, Nor-
11.35 a » m> Daily, folk and intermediate stations; connects at Ports-
mouth with Bay Line for Old Point and Baltimore;
with Norfolk & Washington Steamboat Company for Washington,
with N. Y., P. & N. Railroad for Philadelphia and points North;
also at Weldon with Atlantic Coast Line for Richmond, Washing-
ton, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York; and with Scotland
Neck Branch for Greenville, Washington and Portsmouth. Pull-
man sleepirg-car Atlanta to Portsmouth.
"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, for Southern
2.11 a. m. Daily. Pines, Hamlet, Wilmington, Monroe, Charlotte,
Lincolnton, Shelby, Chester, Clinton, Greenwood,
Abbeville, Athens, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbia, Macon, Mont-
gomery, Mobile, New Orleans, Chattanooga, Nashville, Memphis
and points South and Southwest; through Pullman buffet sleep-
ers and day coaches Washington to Atlanta, connecting directly at
Union Depot, Atlanta, with diverging lines; also Pullman sleep-
ing-car Portsmouth to Monroe.
For Wilmington, Charlotte, Chester, Greenwood,
3.40 p. m. Daily. Athens, Atlanta and all intermediate stations, con-
necting at Union Station, Atlanta, with diverging
lines. Pullman Sleeping-car Portsmouth to Atlanta.
TRAINS ARRIVE AT RALEIGH :
From Norfolk, Portsmouth, and all points North via
3:40 p. m. Daily. Bay Line and New York P. & N. Railroad, Peters-
burg, Richmond and Washington, Baltimore, Phila-
delphia, New York and Boston; also from Greenville, Plymouth, Wash-
ington, N. C, and Eastern Carolina points, via Weldon.
"Atlanta Special," Pullman Vestibule, from Atlanta
2:16 a. m. Daily. and points South, Athens, Abbeville, Greenwood and
From Charlotte, Athens, Atlanta and intermediate
1 1 .-30 a. m. Daily, stations.
"Atlanta Special," from Norfolk, Portsmouth, Hen-
2:11 a. m. Daily. derson, Weldon, Richmond, Washington, Baltimore,
Philadelphia, New York and the East
Magnificent Pullman Vestibuled Trains. No Exra Fare.
Apply to ticket agent, or to H. S. LEARD, Sol. Pas. Ag't, Raleigh, N. C.
E. ST. JOHN, Vice-President and General Manager,
H. W. B. GLOVER, Traffic Manager.
T. J. ANDERSON, General Passenger Agent.
V. E. McBEE, General Superintendent.